Research Papers on OMT

In my research in the field, I have collected some useful scientific journal entries that might be of interest to someone interested in Myofunctional Therapy.

Relapse of anterior open bites treated with orthodontic appliances with and without orofacial myofunctional therapy

This study assesses the effectiveness of orofacial myofunctional therapy (OMT) in conjunction with orthodontic treatment for the long-term retention of closed anterior open bites. Including 76 subjects, the research compares an experimental group (27 subjects) receiving OMT and orthodontic treatment or retreatment, against a control group (49 subjects) with a history of orthodontic treatment and open-bite relapse. The findings reveal that the experimental group experienced significantly less overbite relapse (average 0.5 mm) compared to the control group (average 3.4 mm), demonstrating the efficacy of OMT in maintaining the closure of anterior open bites post-orthodontic treatment.

Relapse revisited—again

This research evaluates the long-term stability of orthodontic treatment outcomes, specifically examining dental records on average 24 years post-treatment to address whether tooth irregularity increases over time and the extent of relapse in a conservatively treated sample. The study involved 52 women treated in the mid-1970s to early 1980s with standard edgewise appliances and retention strategies including a maxillary Hawley retainer and a mandibular retainer. Measurements taken from dental casts at three different stages—pre-treatment, post-treatment, and long-term recall—focused on incisor overjet and overbite, buccal segment relationships, and incisor irregularity. The findings indicate that mandibular incisor irregularity was less than 3.5 mm in 77% of the participants at recall, suggesting that orthodontic treatment provides good long-term stability in occlusal correction and tooth alignment.

Breathing Re-Education and Phenotypes of Sleep Apnea: A Review

This review delves into the complexities of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), identifying four distinct phenotypes of the condition, only one of which is anatomical. It highlights the inadequacy of anatomically based treatments and standard therapies due to low compliance, advocating for personalized treatment protocols that include breathing re-education and myofunctional therapy. Breathing re-education targets three functional dimensions: biochemical, biomechanical, and resonant frequency, aiming to restore nasal breathing and correct dysfunctional patterns. The article underscores the interconnectedness of daytime and nighttime breathing patterns, suggesting that improving wakefulness breathing could benefit sleep-disordered breathing. It calls for more research into the therapeutic benefits of a comprehensive approach to breathing re-education that addresses all three dimensions, potentially offering significant interventions for all OSAHS phenotypes.

Ankyloglossia as a risk factor for maxillary hypoplasia and soft palate elongation: A functional – morphological study

This cross-sectional cohort study investigates the relationship between restricted tongue mobility and its impact on maxillofacial development. Conducted with 302 subjects from an orthodontic practice, the research utilizes tongue range of motion ratio (TRMR) and Kotlow free tongue measurement to assess tongue mobility. These assessments were then correlated with maxillofacial skeleton measurements derived from dental casts and cephalometric radiographs. The findings reveal that restricted tongue mobility is associated with a narrowing of the maxillary arch and an elongation of the soft palate, but not with the position of the hyoid bone or Angle’s skeletal classification. This suggests that variations in tongue mobility could significantly influence maxillofacial morphology, primarily leading to a high-arched palate with transverse deficiency, highlighting the importance of assessing tongue mobility in orthodontic evaluations and treatments.

Chewing, Biting, Clenching, Bruxing and Oral Health

This article explores the critical role of chewing and associated activities like biting, clenching, and bruxing in health beyond mere food processing. It delves into how these functions contribute to bone development, stress reduction, cognitive enhancement, and even indicate potential health issues such as obstructive sleep apnea. Highlighting the negative impact of modern weaning practices and dietary habits on facial development and oral health, the piece calls for a paradigm shift towards more natural weaning and chewing practices. By examining the epigenetic effects of chewing patterns from infancy through adulthood, the article underscores the need for a holistic approach to oral health, emphasizing the interconnectedness of chewing functions with broader health outcomes and advocating for chewing’s integral role in maintaining optimal health and well-being.

Orofacial Myofunctional Therapy in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: A Pathophysiological Perspective

This narrative review delves into the multifaceted nature of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a disorder influenced by several pathophysiological factors including airway collapsibility, pharyngeal muscle responsiveness, arousal threshold, and loop gain. It underscores the importance of understanding these underlying mechanisms to select effective treatments, noting that conventional methods like CPAP, surgery, and dental appliances might not suffice, particularly in mild to moderate cases. The review highlights orofacial myofunctional therapy (OMT) as a promising intervention. OMT, comprising isotonic and isometric exercises for the oral and oropharyngeal structures, aims to enhance muscle tone, endurance, and coordination, showing significant potential in reducing snoring, apnea-hypopnea index, and daytime sleepiness, while improving oxygen saturation and sleep quality. It emphasizes OMT’s benefits in repositioning the tongue, enhancing nasal breathing, and increasing muscle tone, with evidence supporting its role in preventing residual OSA post-adenotonsillectomy in children and aiding CPAP adherence in adults. The review calls for further randomized, multi-institutional studies to ascertain OMT’s efficacy as a standalone or combined treatment approach in OSA management, offering an insightful update on literature regarding OSA pathophysiology and the impact of OMT.

Obstructive sleep apnea: focus on myofunctional therapy

This review examines the efficacy of orofacial myofunctional therapy (OMT) for treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in both children and adults, focusing on changes in upper airway musculature. Through an extensive literature search across databases like MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science, the study compiles findings from eleven studies on the impacts of OMT on OSA. The primary benefits observed include significant reductions in the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), arousal index, and improvements in daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, and overall quality of life in adults. For children with residual apnea, OMT has been shown to decrease AHI, enhance oxygen saturation, and improve orofacial myofunctional status. Despite these positive outcomes, the review notes a scarcity of randomized, high-quality studies and calls for further research to assess long-term effects and musculature changes. This highlights OMT’s potential as a beneficial treatment for OSA, contributing to better adherence to treatments like continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), yet underlines the need for more comprehensive studies to fully understand its effectiveness and mechanisms.

Myofunctional Therapy: A Novel Treatment of Pediatric Sleep-Disordered Breathing

This paper discusses OMT as a treatment option for pediatric sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), focusing on habit correction and muscle retraining for improved nasal breathing and oral posture. Through comprehensive assessments and tailored exercises, OMT addresses issues like mouth breathing, incorrect tongue position, and dysfunctional swallowing. The therapy involves education on harmful oral habits, repatterning facial muscles, teaching proper chewing and swallowing, and ensuring functional head and neck posture. Emphasizing the principles of neuroplasticity, OMT requires active patient participation and commitment to daily practice for lasting behavioral change. While beneficial as a standalone treatment for mild-to-moderate SDB, combining OMT with other interventions like adenotonsillectomy may yield optimal outcomes. Further research is needed to fully establish OMT’s efficacy in treating and preventing SDB in children, underscoring its potential role within a multidisciplinary treatment approach.

Myofunctional Therapy to Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This meta-analysis and systematic review explore the effectiveness of myofunctional therapy (MT) in treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) for both children and adults, analyzing polysomnographic data, snoring, and sleepiness outcomes. Drawing from studies up to June 18, 2014, it found significant improvements post-MT, with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) decreasing by about 50% in adults and 62% in children. Additionally, lowest oxygen saturations, snoring frequency, and sleepiness levels showed marked improvements in adults. The review suggests MT as a beneficial adjunct therapy for OSA, highlighting its potential to maintain treatment effects in children post-adenotonsillectomy and palatal expansion, preventing OSA recurrence. This evidence underscores MT’s role in improving sleep quality and health outcomes in OSA patients.

Snoring Tots More Likely to Turn into Troubled Kids

Research led by Karen Bonuck, PhD, at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, reveals a significant link between early signs of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children and later behavioral and emotional problems. This longitudinal study, published in Pediatrics, finds that children aged 6 to 69 months displaying symptoms such as snoring, mouth breathing, or apnea have a 60% higher risk of developing issues like hyperactivity by age 7. Even children whose symptoms resolved early on faced an elevated risk of behavioral problems compared to those without SDB symptoms. The study underscores the importance of early identification and intervention for SDB symptoms, suggesting that monitoring and potentially treating conditions like enlarged tonsils and adenoids could mitigate future behavioral and emotional difficulties. This evidence highlights the critical need for healthcare providers to thoroughly assess children’s sleep habits during routine visits to prevent long-term adverse outcomes.